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New Jersey Low Income and Minority Resident Lottery Participation. Allison Jackson Associates. New Jersey Division of State Lottery, July, 1988. This research study is based on extensive analysis of secondary data, six focus group interview sessions with low income minority and nonminority residents in three regions throughout New Jersey, point-of-purchase interviews with 1,797 lottery players at 50 lottery outlet locations throughout the state, and a scientific telephone survey of 1,808 New Jersey residents age 18 and over. This survey was conducted to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of lottery play in New Jersey and the lottery's impact on minorities and low income residents. The study concluded that minorities and low income residents do not differ from other lottery players in terms of their overall play or their attitudes toward the lottery. However, low income players spend a larger proportion of their household income on the lottery than do other players, and blacks spend more on a weekly basis than do whites or Hispanics. There is strong support for the lottery and lottery advertising by New Jersey residents.

An Exploratory Study of Lottery Playing, Gambling Addiction and Links to Compulsive Consumption. Alvin Burns, Peter Gillett, Marc Rubinstein and James Gentry. Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.17, 1990. A telephone questionnaire was administered to 235 respondents who were selected using systematic sampling with a random starting point from an Orlando telephone book. The study found that lottery players exhibited more heavy shopping and browsing than nonplayers. Lottery players also tended to have lower incomes and be less educated than nonplayers. However, they were also younger than nonplayers. Lottery players were found to view their playing as socially acceptable risk-taking that provides them with a means of fantasizing sudden wealth and escape from their current status. Players were found to be stimulated by situational factors like a previous lottery win or a purchase of some lottery book/aid, and are also likely to increase their purchases when the jackpot grows in size.

Characteristics of Pathological Gamblers Identified Among Patients on a Psychiatric Admissions Service. Henry R. Lesieur and Sheila B. Blume. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, p1009-1012, Sept. 1990. Psychiatric patients were found to have a much higher incidence of pathological gambling than the general population. A significant number also came from families with a history of problem gambling.

Incidence and Comparative Study of Compulsive Gambling Behaviors Between American Indian and Non-Indians Within and Near a Northern Plains Reservation. Darryl Zitzow. Indian Health Service, Bemidji, Minnesota Area Office, Oct. 30, 1992. This report is the result of three separate studies comparing gambling behaviors of American Indians to non-Indians. The studies included an adolescent school survey (ages 12-19), a random phone survey of adults (ages 20-86) and a systematic sampling of active adult gamblers at various gambling sites. The adolescent survey indicated higher rates of problematic gambling characteristics (14.8 percent) and pathological gambling characteristics (9.6 percent) for American Indian adolescents than the non-Indian rates of 10.5 percent and 5.6 percent respectively. The phone survey showed no significant differences overall between American Indian and non-Indian adults in regard to pathological gambling. However, the active gambling adult survey did show significantly higher rates of problematic (2.8 percent vs. 1.6 percent) and pathological gambling behaviors (9.1 percent vs. 4.6 percent) for American Indian adults than non-Indian adults.

Comparing the Pathological and Recreational Gambler: An Exploratory Study. Gary Davis and Dennis Brissett. Minnesota Department of Human Services, Dec. 1995. This study explores personality and lifestyle differences between pathological gamblers and recreational gamblers. No differences were found between the pathological and recreational gamblers on demographic variables including gender, age, marital status and level of education. Although similar in the early stage of their gambling careers, pathological gamblers were very different from recreational gamblers in the latter stage of their gambling careers. When their gambling was at its worst, pathological gamblers gambled to make money, to escape, to be in control of life, to feel alive and to relieve depression. Recreational gamblers reported gambling for fun, recreation and novelty. Personality tests showed the pathological gambler to be more unconventional and non-conforming.

Gender, Gambling and Problem Gambling. Joseph Hraba and Gang Lee. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 12(1), p83-101, Spring, 1996. Drawing from data from a 1989 Iowa survey, the authors conclude that although women have a narrower scope of gambling activity than men, there were no differences in gambling frequency, wagering, and time spent at gambling. The genders were similar on problem gambling but differed significantly on predictors of problem gambling. Alcohol was a predominate predictor for males and estrangement from a conventional lifestyle and integration into a social world of gambling explained problem gambling for females.

Psychopathology in Pathological Gamblers Seeking Treatment: Gender Comparisons. Sheila M. Specker, Gregory A. Carlson, Karen M. Edmonson, Paula E. Johnson and Michael Marcotte. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 12(1), p67-81, Spring, 1996. This report found high rates of Axis I psychopathology, such as depression and substance abuse/dependency, in pathological gamblers as compared to controls. Rates of affective and substance use disorders were equally high in men and women. Axis II personality disorders, such as paranoia or avoidant behaviors, were not frequent and did not differ significantly from controls. Significant rates of sexual/physical abuse were found. Pathological gambling is probably not a homogeneous disorder. Persons with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders may be at higher risk to develop pathological gambling.

Potential and Probable Pathological Gamblers: Where Do the Differences Lie? Dominique Dubé, Mark H. Freeston and Robert Ladouceur. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 12(4), p419-430, Winter, 1996. The SOGS test was given to 1,471 college students in Quebec. The results showed a pathological gambling rate of 2.8 percent overall, with a much higher percentage for males (5.7 percent) than females (0.6 percent). The analysis also differentiated the probable from potential pathological gamblers in Illegal Behaviors, Heavy Gambling, Parentally Modeled/Less Impulsive and Worry factors.